Downward Filtration Theory is a theory introduced by Lord Macaulay in his famous Macaulay’s Minutes of 1835 which was submitted to then Governor General of British India for solving some problems related to the educational system in India during those days. Actually Macaulay was assigned the duty of studying the real background of the Oriental- Occidental Controversy which was haunting the whole educational scenario of the period between 1817 and 1833. Britishers had started giving education only since 1813 in which they published a charter act to provide a financial aid of one hundred thousand rupees for indigenous educational institutions. In 1817 another charter act was declared by modifying the amount to two hundred thousand rupees as grant-in-aid system. But the quarrel between two groups i.e. the orientalists and the occidentals created some hurdles before the smooth running of the educational system in the country. The quarrel was in the selection of medium of instruction and the content of the syllabus. This oriental-occidental controversy had to be solved for the effective implementation of modern education in India. The duty was given to Macaulay, a law member of the Governor’s council. He put forth a few recommendations to solve the problem in his historic report called Macaulay’s Minutes of 1835.
Vedic Education is the system of education prevailed in India during the so called Vedic age in India i.e. fro 1500 B.C. to 600 or 500 B.C. There are different views on the time span of Vedic Age in India. The people who believe that the real starting of Vedic age is the arrival of Aryans during the time of 1700 B.C. However, it is said that Vedic Age starts from 1500 B.C. Vedic Age is divided into two as Early Vedic Age and Later Vedic Age. The vedic period is known as so because the four great Vedas such as the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda were written during the period. These four Vedas were written during the early Vedic Period i.e. during the time between 1500B.C. The later Vedic period is believed to be existed between 1000 B.C. and 600 or 500 B.c. The Later Vedic Period is also known as Epic Period, as the two great Epics called The Mahabharata and The Ramayana during this period. The later Vedic Period is also known as Brahmanic Period, as it is believed that social stratification was at its peak and Brahmins enjoyed the highest status during the later Vedic period.
Social Diversity is the differences seen in a particular society in the case of religion, culture, economic status etc. If the people of a particular society belong to different religions, cultural backgrounds, social status, economic status, linguistic environment etc., this phenomena is called social diversity. Social diversity is regarded as something which makes this universe more livable and attractive. The countries like India are well known for their diversified nature in a variety of aspects such as faith, rituals and customs, geographical differences, linguistic elements and other social aspects.
Assistant Professor of Education, Keyi sahib Training College
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